Cases reported "Parkinsonian Disorders"

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1/9. Parkinsonism after correction of hyponatremia with radiological central pontine myelinolysis and changes in the basal ganglia.

    Parkinsonism has been rarely described following central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis. We report a case of parkinsonism developing following rapid correction of hyponatremia with radiological evidence of central pontine myelinolysis and changes in the basal ganglia. A 56-year-old man developed drooling and bilateral hand tremors 3 weeks after correction of hyponatremia from 103 to 125 mmol/L over 14 h. He had a prominent 6 Hz resting tremor which worsened with action and mild cogwheel rigidity. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed changes consistent with central pontine myelinolysis and increased signal on T1-weighted images in the putamen bilaterally. His tremor responded well to L-dopa therapy. There have been several other cases of parkinsonism developing after central pontine/extrapontine myelinolysis. Increased signal in the basal ganglia on T1-weighted images has been described in another case of central pontine myelinolysis imaged about the same time after sodium correction as our case.
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2/9. L-dopa-resistant parkinsonism syndrome following cerebral radiation therapy for neoplasm.

    A bradykinetic form of parkinsonism, unresponsive to levo-dopa therapy developed in four patients two to eight weeks after completion of external beam irradiation (39.2 Gy to 59.4 Gy) of their intracranial neoplasm. In the absence of other causative factors, we relate the movement disorder to radiation-induced changes within the basal ganglia. At post-mortem examination one patient had putamenal gliosis and thickened vessels with loss of nigral neurons.
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3/9. Anticholinergic drugs: response of parkinsonism not responsive to levodopa.

    A 41 year old man with parkinsonism and pyramidal signs is described. He was non-responsive to levodopa and dopamine receptor agonists but dramatically responded to trihexyphenidyl. In this patient, brain MRI showed bilateral hyperintensities along the corticospinal tracts on T2 weighted images. PET studies showed a decrease in (18)F-6-fluorodopa uptake in the putamen contralateral to the more affected limbs and normal D(2) receptor binding in the putamen. The PET and MRI findings and responsiveness to antiparkinsonian agents suggested degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, striatal output pathways, and corticospinal tracts.
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4/9. dysarthria, progressive parkinsonian features and symmetric necrosis of putamen in a family with painful lipomas (Dercum disease variant).

    We describe painful subcutaneous lipomatosis in four members of a two-generation family. Lipomas appeared in adulthood, were circumscribed, painful on touch and mainly localized to the trunk and proximal parts of the extremities. The disorder was associated with dysarthria, visual pursuit defect and progressive dystonia. MRI showed bilateral increasing cystic lesions in the basal parts of the putamen. No other abnormalities were detected. The lesions corresponded well with the clinical presentation in the patients. Investigation for mitochondrial disease with muscle biopsy and mitochondrial dna gave normal results. No consistent biochemical changes were found. The disorder in this family was considered to differ from MERRF with lipomatous lesions and multiple symmetric lipomatosis but compatible with a Dercum disease variant.
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keywords = putamen
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5/9. A novel mutation (G217D) in the Presenilin 1 gene ( PSEN1) in a Japanese family: presenile dementia and parkinsonism are associated with cotton wool plaques in the cortex and striatum.

    We report a family of Japanese origin that has five individuals from two generations affected by an illness characterized by dementia, a stooped posture and an antiflexion gait with an onset in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Two siblings had a clinical phenotype characterized by dementia and Parkinsonism with stooped posture, rigidity and bradykinesia. Neuropathological alterations in both patients included numerous 'cotton wool' plaques (CWPs), senile plaques, severe amyloid angiopathy, neurofibrillary tangles, neuronal rarefaction and gliosis. CWPs were present throughout the cerebral cortex as well as in the caudate nucleus, putamen, claustrum, thalamus, substantia innominata and colliculi. These plaques contained a small quantity of argyrophilic and tau-immunopositive neurites as well as glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunopositive elements. They were mildly fluorescent with thioflavin S and immunopositive using monoclonal antibodies recognizing amyloid beta (A beta) ending at residue 42. The main constituents of CWPs were neuropil elements and extracellular amyloid fibrils. These neuropil elements were small dendrites including spines, axon terminals containing synaptic vesicles and astrocytic processes. dendrites occasionally contained bundles of paired helical filaments. dendrites and axons often had an irregular outline and appeared as degenerating osmiophilic processes containing electron-dense mitochondria. Genetic analysis of the proband's affected sibling revealed a novel nucleotide substitution (G to A) in exon 8 of the Presenilin 1 ( PSEN1) gene. This nucleotide change results in a glycine to aspartic acid substitution at residue 217 of the PSEN1 protein. This study provides further evidence of clinical and pathological heterogeneity in dementing illnesses associated with PSEN1 mutations.
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6/9. [18F]-Dopa positron emission tomography imaging in early-stage, non-parkin juvenile parkinsonism.

    There are few reports of positron emission tomography (PET) in juvenile parkinsonism (JP). We report on the results of (18)F-6-fluoro-L-dopa (FD) PET in a 14-year-old patient with JP of 5 years duration associated with atypical features. This is the youngest subject to be investigated to date. There was a severe asymmetric reduction in striatal FD uptake, with a rostrocaudal gradient in the putamen similar to that seen in adult-onset idiopathic parkinsonism. Extensive dna analysis in this patient did not show mutations in the parkin gene.
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7/9. Atypical parkinsonism combining alpha-synuclein inclusions and polyglucosan body disease.

    adult polyglucosan body disease (APGBD) is a rare disorder affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems and in which parkinsonism is unusual. A 71-year-old man presented levodopa-unresponsive parkinsonism with urinary incontinence and recurrent syncopes of 6 years standing masquerading as atypical parkinsonism of the multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) type. brain histopathology demonstrated massive accumulation of polyglucosan bodies particularly in the putamen. In addition, there were dense alpha-synuclein-positive cytoplasmic oligodendroglial inclusions in the pons and in the middle cerebellar peduncle. These inclusions may be either due to the chance association of MSA-P with APGBD, or pathologically related to APGBD.
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8/9. Clinical features of adult GM1 gangliosidosis: report of three Indian patients and review of 40 cases.

    Deficiency of enzyme acid beta-galactosidase causes GM1 gangliosidosis. patients with adult GM1 gangliosidosis typically present with generalized dystonia. We describe clinical, bone marrow, and radiological features of adult GM1 gangliosidosis to help improve its recognition. We report 3 Indian patients and review of reports between 1981 and October 2002. The disease frequently is reported in the Japanese literature (75%). patients are normal at birth and have normal early motor and mental development. Onset is within the first decade with abnormal gait, or worsening of speech is an initial symptom. dystonia occurs in 97% of patients. Facial dystonia described as "facial grimacing" observed in approximately 90% could be an important clinical clue. dysarthria/anarthria (97%) is frequent, and eye movements are normal. bone marrow examination may show Gaucher-like foam cells (39%). magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) frequently (90.9%) shows bilateral symmetrical putamenal hyperintensities on T2-weighted and proton density images. diagnosis is confirmed by demonstrating deficiency of beta-galactosidase. adult (Type 3) GM1 Gangliosidosis commonly presents with generalized dystonia with prominent facial dystonia, severe speech disturbances, and normal eye movements. Bone marrow frequently shows Gaucher-like foam cells. MRI shows typical lesions in the putamen. Deficiency of beta-galactosidase in fibroblasts confirms the diagnosis.
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9/9. Pathophysiology of parkinsonism due to hydrocephalus.

    We report a patient with hydrocephalus who developed levodopa responsive parkinsonism and severe bradyphrenia associated with shunt malfunction and revision. magnetic resonance imaging revealed periaqueductal edema involving medial substantia nigra. [18F]dopa positron emission tomography demonstrated reduced uptake in the caudate and putamen with relative sparing of the posterior putamen. hydrocephalus associated with shunt malfunction can cause a distinct parkinsonian syndrome with greater dysfunction of projections from the medial substantia nigra to anterior striatum than in idiopathic Parkinson's disease.
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