Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/17. Migratory basal ganglia lesions in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE): clinical implications of axonal spread.

    We report a boy with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) who exhibited parkinsonian symptoms four months after onset. The symptoms improved after administration of levodopa. One year after onset, bilateral symmetric lesions appeared in the substantia nigra and the putamen, as observed using magnetic resonance imaging. After a one-year interval, the lesions migrated to the bilateral caudate and the cerebellar dentate nuclei. The series of migratory legions, each of which was connected by axonal pathways originating from the substantia nigra, suggests axonal spread of the sspe virus.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = putamen
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/17. Bilateral fetal mesencephalic grafting in two patients with parkinsonism induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)

    BACKGROUND. Intracerebral transplantation of fetal dopaminergic neurons is a promising new approach for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. patients with parkinsonism induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) have a relatively stable lesion limited to the nigrostriatal system, rendering them ideal candidates for transplantation. Improvement of motor function after neural grafting has previously been observed in nonhuman primates with MPTP-induced parkinsonism. methods. We grafted human fetal tissue from the ventral mesencephalon (obtained six to eight weeks after conception) bilaterally to the caudate and putamen in two immunosuppressed patients with severe MPTP-induced parkinsonism, using a stereotaxic technique. The patients were assessed regularly with clinical rating scales, timed tests of motor performance, and [18F]fluorodopa positron-emission tomography during the 18 months before the operation and the 22 to 24 months after the operation. RESULTS. Both patients had substantial, sustained improvement in motor function and became much more independent. Postoperatively, the second patient's maintenance dose of levodopa was decreased to 150 mg daily, which was 30 percent of the original dose. Striatal uptake of fluorodopa was unchanged 5 to 6 months postoperatively but was markedly and bilaterally increased at 12 to 13 and 22 to 24 months in both patients, closely paralleling the patients' clinical improvement. There were no serious complications. CONCLUSIONS. Bilateral implantation of fetal mesencephalic tissue can induce substantial long-term functional improvement in patients with parkinsonism and severe dopamine depletion and is accompanied by increased uptake of fluorodopa by the striatum. The results in these patients resemble those obtained in MPTP-treated primates and suggest that this will be a useful model for the assessment of transplantation therapies in Parkinson's disease.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = putamen
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/17. Cyanide-induced parkinsonism: clinical, MRI, and 6-fluorodopa PET studies.

    A 46-year-old man ingested 1,500 mg of potassium cyanide in a suicide attempt. He survived, but later developed a severe parkinsonian syndrome. MRI revealed multiple areas of low-signal intensity in the globus pallidus and posterior putamen. A 6-fluorodopa PET study revealed bilateral decreased uptake in the basal ganglia. This evidence of functional impairment of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons is related either to direct toxicity of cyanide or to the effects of cerebral hypoxia secondary to cyanide intoxication.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = putamen
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/17. Parkinsonism in the presence of intracranial extracerebral haematomas.

    Bilateral Parkinsonism has been observed in a 60-year-old female with a chronic subdural intracranial haematoma. Scattered, poorly marginated, hypodense areas within the ipsilateral pallidus and putamen were evident on the preoperative CT scans. The rapid neurological improvement following the surgical drainage of the subdural clot and the evolution of the densitometric features of the nuclear lesions, which became clear-cut, though smaller, in the following months, suggest a cause-and-effect relation between the haematoma and the clinical symptomatology. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case in which anatomical lesions within the basal ganglia could be detected neuroradiologically.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = putamen
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/17. Clinical and CT scan findings in a case of cyanide intoxication.

    A 39-year-old man showed a combination of severe parkinsonism and progressive dystonia following attempted suicide with sodium cyanide. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed bilateral lucencies in the putamen and external globus pallidus. The topography of lesions on CT scan closely correlated with the pathological findings described in a previous report of cyanide-induced parkinsonism. This is the first reported case of cyanide intoxication with delayed-onset dystonia.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = putamen
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/17. methanol intoxication. Parkinsonism and decreased Met-enkephalin levels due to putaminal necrosis.

    Due to methanol intoxication, a 38-year-old male developed permanent parkinsonism with visual impairment. brain computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed cystic resorption of the putamen. An alteration of the central noradrenergic activity and the opioid system can be assumed because of increased dopamine beta-hydroxylase (D beta H) activity and decreased methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk) levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = putamen
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/17. Cyanide-induced parkinsonism: a clinicopathologic report.

    An 18-year-old man ingested 975 to 1,300 mg of potassium cyanide in a suicide attempt. He was treated and survived the poisoning episode, but then had severe parkinsonian syndrome, characterized primarily by akinesia and rigidity. He died 19 months after the drug overdose. At autopsy, major destructive changes were found in the globus pallidus and putamen, whereas the melanin-containing zone of substantia nigra was intact. This is the first clinicopathologic report of parkinsonism as a result of cyanide poisoning.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = putamen
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/17. Biochemical findings in a case of parkinsonism secondary to brain tumor.

    Neuropathological and biochemical studies were performed in a patient with craniopharyngioma and a long history of parkinsonism. Morphological examination revealed atrophy of the substantia nigra without lewy bodies. Both th caudate and putamen nuclei showed moderate loss of large cells with glial proliferation. There was a notable decrease in dopamine and its metabolites and a reduction in norepinephrine content in both the caudate and putamen nuclei. Less consistent changes were found in serotonin and amino acid levels. Dopamine receptors, evaluated as 3H-spiperone binding sites, were unchanged in the putamen but decreased to 30% of control values in the caudate. The findings suggest that parkinsonism was caused by the brain tumor, which damaged both the presynaptic dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons and the postsynaptic dopamine receptors.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 3
keywords = putamen
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/17. methanol poisoning: a clinical and pathological study.

    We report 2 survivors of severe methanol poisoning who developed, apart from blindness, a Parkinson-like extrapyramidal syndrome characterized by reduced initiative, poor voice volume, masked facies, mild tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia. Both patients were mildly demented and 1 had hyperreflexia and bilateral Babinski responses. Computed tomographic scans in both patients demonstrated bilateral symmetrical infarction of the frontocentral white matter and putamen. electromyography in 1 patient showed extensive denervation, mainly involving the legs, but normal motor conduction velocities. L-Dopa administered to the more severely affected patient had no effect on the parkinsonian features. autopsy revealed cystic resorption of the putamen and the frontocentral subcortical white matter in additon to widespread neuronal damage throughout the cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2
keywords = putamen
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/17. Serial MRI in infantile bilateral striatal necrosis.

    A 3-year-old girl with left hemiparesis suffered from bilateral paresis, motor rigidity, gait disturbance, axial hypotonia, dysarthria, apathy, and incontinence. After steroid therapy, mild improvement occurred, but muscle weakness, gait disturbance, and rigidity remained. Leigh encephalopathy was excluded on the basis of muscle biopsy and laboratory findings. Computed tomography and serial magnetic resonance imaging at an early stage revealed right-sided dominant lesions in the putamen and caudate nucleus and later bilateral striatal lesions, appearing as hyperintense signals on T2-weighted images and mixtures of hypo- and hyperintense signals on T1-weighted images. This is the first demonstration of serial magnetic resonance imaging findings in infantile bilateral striatal necrosis.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = putamen
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Parkinson Disease, Secondary'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.