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1/6. Extensive cortico-subcortical lesions in Wilson's disease: clinico-pathological study of two cases.

    Wilson's disease (WD) with extensive cortico-subcortical lesions represents a rare neuropathological subgroup, the pathogenesis of which is not clearly determined. We report two new cases with identical lesions. In the families of each of the patient, there were mutations in the ATPase7B gene, especially in the family of proband 1, and in the first cousin of proband 2. These cases included massive destruction of the white matter in superior gyri, mostly frontal, extending to the deep cortex with neuronal loss and capillary proliferation. astrocytes were of Alzheimer type 1 and 2; and type 1 were labeled by anti-metallothionein. Opalski cells were abundant and their macrophagic lineage was confirmed by immunostaining. Among the possible mechanisms proposed, the role of vascular factors and penicillamine treatment could be excluded. Cerebral copper content in white matter and putamen of case 1 was at the same level as in common WD but accumulation of unbound copper in the white matter was a distinctive feature, which suggested a pathological neurotoxic effect.
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keywords = putamen
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2/6. Effect of D-penicillamine treatment on brain metabolism in Wilson's disease: a case study.

    Sequential measurements of brain glucose metabolism were carried out in a patient with Wilson's disease, before and after successful treatment with D-penicillamine. They demonstrate an evolution of regional metabolism consistent with clinical improvement. The first study showed marked hypometabolism in the putamen on both sides. The second analysis showed bilateral improvement, with predominant residual deficits in the right putamen, while clinical symptoms of striatal dysfunction persisted on the left side. This observation suggests that positron emission tomography is able to follow the neurological evolution in cases of Wilson's disease.
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keywords = putamen
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3/6. Improvement of cerebral CT abnormalities following liver transplantation in a patient with Wilson disease.

    Cerebral CT performed in patients with Wilson disease (hepatolenticular degeneration) often reveals abnormalities of the putamen, globus pallidus, thalamocapsular region, cerebral cortex, dentate nucleus, and brain stem. We report a patient with Wilson disease who demonstrated rapid reversal of CT abnormalities following orthotopic liver transplantation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = putamen
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4/6. Treatment with D-penicillamine improves dopamine D2-receptor binding and T2-signal intensity in de novo Wilson's disease.

    We report the results of in vivo striatal dopamine D2-receptor binding assessed by PET using 11C-raclopride (only one patient) and by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using 123I-iodobenzamide (123I-IBZM) and the findings of T2-weighted MRIs in two de novo Wilson's disease patients before and 4 months after initiation of D-penicillamine treatment. Before treatment, specific 11C-raclopride binding (only patient 1) was markedly reduced, with a putamen to cerebellum ratio of 1.99 (controls: 3.99 /- 0.55, n = 15) and a caudate to cerebellum ratio of 2.52 (controls: 3.65 /- 0.59, n = 15). Specific 123I-IBZM binding was reduced in both patients, with a basal ganglia to frontal cortex ratio of 1.25 (patient 1) and of 1.41 (patient 2) controls: 1.57 /- 0.04, n = 5). After 4 months of therapy, 11C-raclopride-PET improved to a putamen to cerebellum ratio of 2.52 and a caudate to cerebellum ratio of 3.06 (patient 1). 123I-IBZM-SPECT revealed an increase of basal ganglia to frontal cortex ratios of 1.34 (patient 1) and 1.55 (patient 2). On heavily T2-weighted MRI sequences, hyperintense signal changes before therapy within the putamen (both patients), brainstem (only patient 1), and caudate (only patient 2) greatly diminished after treatment. Reduced striatal dopamine D2-receptor binding in these Wilson's disease patients improved under therapy, suggesting, in part, a reversible defect of striatal neurons.
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keywords = putamen
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5/6. Neurological Wilson's disease studied with magnetic resonance imaging and with positron emission tomography using dopaminergic markers.

    Four patients with neurological Wilson's disease were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). All patients had dystonia as their major clinical manifestation but also had dysarthria and at the presentation of the disease had choreoathetoid movements in at least one limb. A multitracer approach with PET was used to visualize various aspects of dopaminergic function; [11C]-( )-nomifensine (NMF), [11C]raclopride (RAC) and [11C]-L-DOPA (one patient). Correlation analysis of RAC and NMF binding as well as putamen/caudate uptake ratios showed corresponding reductions. The patient investigated with [11C]-L-DOPA had a normal striatal uptake. Generally, structural changes as shown by MRI corresponded to reductions both in NMF and RAC binding. There was no evident correspondence between PET findings and the severity of clinical symptoms seen in the individual patient. In two patients with discrete neurological impairment at the time of investigation, PET showed serious presynaptic dopaminergic lesions in the putamen. Our data suggest that the striatal degeneration seen in Wilson's disease comprises a complex pathology involving both afferent and efferent projections. The discrete neurological impairment seen in some patients with gross striatal pathology might be due to concomitant lesions in functionally counteracting basal ganglia circuits.
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ranking = 2
keywords = putamen
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6/6. Acute dystonia with thalamic and brainstem lesions after initial penicillamine treatment in Wilson's disease.

    dystonia is a common manifestation in Wilson's disease (WD). The striatum, especially the putamen, has been considered to be responsible for dystonia. We reported 3 patients who developed acute generalized dystonia and akinetic rigid syndrome following an initial therapy with d-penicillamine 125-500 mg daily. Brain MRI revealed lesions in the thalamus and the brainstem, particularly the tegmentum, and the basis pontis in addition to the basal ganglion lesions. After the episode, 1 patient continued to receive d-penicillamine therapy and 2 changed to zinc sulfate treatment. The generalized dystonia improved in the following 3 months and 3 years respectively in 2 patients. Follow-up brain MRI of these 2 patients revealed that the lesions in the thalamus and brainstem disappeared or resolved almost completely. From these data, acute generalized dystonia with brainstem and thalamic lesions may occur in WD patients after an initial d-penicillamine therapy. Furthermore, the dystonia may resolve following the disappearance of the brainstem and thalamic lesions.
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ranking = 1
keywords = putamen
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