Anterior midline brain, cranial, and facial malformations resulting from the failure of the embryonic prosencephalon to undergo segmentation and cleavage. Alobar prosencephaly is the most severe form and features anophthalmia; cyclopia; severe intellectual disability; cleft lip; cleft palate; seizures; and microcephaly. Semilobar holoprosencepaly is characterized by hypotelorism, microphthalmia, coloboma, nasal malformations, and variable degrees of intellectual disability. Lobar holoprosencephaly is associated with mild (or absent) facial malformations and intellectual abilities that range from mild intellectual disability to normal. holoprosencephaly is associated with CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES.


Images

Fig 2.

Fig 2.
www.ajnr.org

<b>Holoprosencephaly</b>

Holoprosencephaly
www.peds.ufl.edu

nradnormal.html

nradnormal.html
www.uiowa.edu

Case 3: semi-lobar

Case 3: semi-lobar
radiopaedia.org

<b>HOLOPROSENCEPHALY</b>

HOLOPROSENCEPHALY
neuropathology-web.org

This is <b>holoprosencephaly</b>

This is holoprosencephaly
library.med.utah.edu

Figure 1: Axial and saggital

Figure 1: Axial and saggital
webeye.ophth.uiowa.edu

lobar <b>holoprosencephaly</b>.

lobar holoprosencephaly.
emedicine.medscape.com

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Last update: September 2014