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Cases reported "Lacerations"

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1/73. Corneal laceration with total but isolated aniridia caused by a pecking injury.

    A 38-year-old man sustained a left eye injury after being attacked by a mynah bird. Ocular examination revealed a beak-shaped, full-thickness corneal laceration with total aniridia in the left eye. No other ocular injury was observed, and the lens and posterior segment remained normal over the subsequent 3 months. A penetrating keratoplasty was planned for visual restoration.
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ranking = 1
keywords = injury
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2/73. Occult craniocerebral injuries from dog bites in young children.

    Although dog bite injuries to the head and scalp of children occur frequently, penetrating dog bite wounds to the cranial vault occur only occasionally and may go unnoticed on initial examination. Substantial morbidity and mortality can ensue if these penetrating injuries are not detected and treated. The authors detail the evaluation of dog bites of the scalp in young children. They highlight the ease with which puncture wounds of the calvarium may be missed during physical examination as a result of scalp displacement at the time of puncture. The cranial puncture may not be large and may later be covered by scalp that returns to its native position. Well-scrutinized skull films and a careful, methodical physical examination are advocated. Recognized craniocerebral injuries should be explored. Depressed cranial fractures should be irrigated, debrided, and elevated. Dural tears should be repaired. Expedient management is necessary to prevent meningitis and its associated sequelae.
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ranking = 0.0012484495522447
keywords = head
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3/73. Management in intractable obstetric haemorrhage: an audit study on 61 cases.

    OBJECTIVE: To refine the indications of bilateral hypogastric artery ligation (BHAL) and angiographic selective embolisation (ASE) in intractable obstetric haemorrhage. DESIGN: an audit study. SETTING: Tertiary care university hospital. population AND methods: Retrospective analysis of 61 cases of obstetric intractable post partum haemorrhage (PPH) initially managed either by hysterectomy or a conservative approach in a tertiary referral centre between 1983 and 1998. Procedures were reviewed as a primary (P) or secondary (S) attempt to arrest the haemorrhagic process. RESULTS: Ten hysterectomies (5 P, 5 S), 49 BHAL (48 P, 1 S) and 9 ASE (8 P, 1S) were successfully performed in arresting the haemorrhagic process. There were 7 maternal deaths, 5 following hysterectomy and 2 following a conservative approach. Atony of the uterus was the main cause of haemorrhage (n=21) and genital tract laceration was associated with the worst prognosis. time-elapse between delivery and surgery appears to be the main prognostic factor. Nine patients became pregnant 1 to 4 years later following a conservative approach. CONCLUSIONS: ASE seems to be indicated in haemodynamically stable patients with birth canal trauma or uterine atony and clotting anomalies. BHAL is indicated when haemorrhage occurs after a cesarean section or when the patient is haemodynamically unstable. BHAL should be taught to Junior doctors in an attempt to decrease the number of patients transferred in tertiary referral centers for intractable PPH. This might also decrease the number of hysterectomies in intractable PPH.
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ranking = 0.019181252905406
keywords = trauma
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4/73. Blunt chest trauma with deep pulmonary laceration.

    BACKGROUND: Deep pulmonary laceration (DPL) is rare and its survival rate is low. The present study focused on the prognostic factors of DPL. methods: The present study concerned 17 DPL patients treated in Tokai University Hospital between 1988 and 1998. The prognostic factors of DPL were compared with systolic blood pressure (SBP), PaO2, and the volume of intrathoracic blood loss. Characteristic findings of initial chest roentgenograms of DPL were investigated. RESULTS: Eleven patients were saved and 6 patients died. An SBP of less than 80 mm Hg on arrival at the hospital and a blood loss of more than 1,000 mL through the chest tube within 2 hours after arrival were poor prognostic factors. Hypoxemia on arrival was not a poor prognostic factor. Chest roentgenograms showed macular infiltrative shadow with moderate lung collapse and deviation of the mediastinal shadow toward the unaffected side. Selective bronchial occlusion with a Univent prevented suffocation by intrabronchial blood. CONCLUSIONS: Two poor prognostic factors of DPL are SBP less than 80 mm Hg on arrival and blood loss of more than 1,000 mL through the chest tube within 2 hours after arrival.
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ranking = 0.076725011621625
keywords = trauma
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5/73. Esophageal laceration and charcoal mediastinum complicating gastric lavage.

    A 19-year-old woman underwent multiple attempts at orogastric lavage before success 5 h after ingesting approximately 24 grams of ibuprofen in a suicide attempt. Activated charcoal was administered via the lavage tube. She vomited charcoal shortly after administration and began experiencing difficulty breathing and an increase in the pitch of her voice. A chest X-ray study showed a widened mediastinum, pneumopericardium, and subcutaneous emphysema consistent with esophageal perforation that was confirmed by computed tomography scan. Surgical exploration revealed a tear in the proximal posterior esophagus with charcoal in the posterior mediastinum. She remained intubated for 7 days and was discharged 14 days after admission. This is a report of esophageal perforation with activated charcoal contamination of the mediastinum after gastric lavage. The risks and benefits of this procedure should be carefully considered in each patient prior to its use. Awake patients should be cooperative with the procedure to minimize any risk of trauma to the oropharynx or esophagus.
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ranking = 0.019181252905406
keywords = trauma
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6/73. Degloving injury to mental protuberance: a case report.

    Sporting injuries are increasing in frequency with the increase in leisure time. This report describes a case of degloving of the mental protuberance. Ideally this injury should be treated as soon as possible by repositioning the displaced tissue and closure. Immediate assistance was not sought until superimposed infection caused pain and swelling. Because the wound was infected, treatment was aimed at obtaining healing by secondary intention.
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ranking = 0.83333333333333
keywords = injury
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7/73. Bronchial repair with pulmonary preservation for severe blunt trauma.

    After a motorcycle accident, a 22-year-old male was diagnosed with multiple rib fractures, left-sided tension pneumothorax, hemothorax and left upper lobe bronchus rupture at its origin. An emergency left thoracotomy revealed an almost complete avulsion of the upper lobe bronchus from the main stem bronchus, a severely damaged pulmonary artery, and a concurrent deep intraparenchymal lower lobe laceration. Since the patient was hemodynamically stable, a decision was made to preserve as much lung as possible. In the event of complex pulmonary trauma, pulmonary preservation is desirable since emergency pneumonectomy is usually associated with high mortality. Early bronchoscopic assessment, careful anesthetic management, and meticulous surgical technique with liberal use of fibrin glue were crucial to successful outcome.
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ranking = 0.095906264527032
keywords = trauma
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8/73. subcutaneous emphysema of upper limb.

    A case is reported of subcutaneous emphysema involving upper limb resulting from a trivial laceration to the elbow. Gas in the soft tissues after the injury can be caused by infection with a gas forming organism or by a variety of non-infective causes. It is hypothesised that this minor skin wound has acted like a ball-valve mechanism leading to air being trapped in the soft tissue.
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ranking = 0.16666666666667
keywords = injury
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9/73. The management of stab wounds to the heart with laceration of the left anterior descending coronary artery.

    Penetrating cardiac injuries are an increasing cause of traumatic deaths in urban areas. The management of these injuries has undergone a transition from simple pericardiocentesis to cardiac ultrasound evaluation in the stable patient, and emergency thoracotomy and repair of myocardial wounds in the unstable patient in extremes. The incidence of traumatic coronary artery injury is not accurately known because not all victims are examined. With the improvement in emergency medical services, including speed of transportation of these patients, better resuscitation, and knowledgeable use of cardiac ultrasound or emergency room thoracotomy, more patients with coronary artery injuries will survive and reach the operating room. The operative management of the injured coronary artery is dependant on the location of the injury and whether there is myocardial dysfunction. Distal injuries with small myocardial infarction should be treated by ligation alone. Proximal injury and those injuries associate with larger area of ischaemia or infarction are best treated with coronary artery bypass. The role of cardiopulmonary bypass pump in these patients should be evaluated depending on the homodynamic stability of the patient. We present two cases of cardiac stab wounds with transection of the left anterior descending (LAD), which were successfully managed. A literature review regarding the management of combined cardiac and coronary artery injuries is also provided.
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ranking = 0.53836250581081
keywords = injury, trauma
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10/73. Successfully repaired traumatic tracheal disruption and cardiac rupture with cardiopulmonary support.

    A 19-year-old man suffering from dyspnea associated with tracheal and cardiac rupture from a traffic accident was found by bronchoscopy to have a 7.5 cm longitudinal tear in the membranous portion of the trachea. Right posterolateral thoracotomy was conducted and open ventilation through the left main bronchus initiated with standby cardiopulmonary bypass cannulation of the right femoral artery and vein. When oxygenation was poor, extracorporeal circulation was initiated through the cannulated artery and vein. Under the cardiopulmonary bypass, we safely repaired the tracheal laceration and cardiac rupture.
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ranking = 0.076725011621625
keywords = trauma
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Last update: April 2009
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