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Cases reported "Inversion, Chromosome"

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1/22. Emotion-induced myoclonic absence-like seizures in a patient with inv-dup(15) syndrome: a clinical, EEG, and molecular genetic study.

    We have described a clinical EEG and molecular genetic study of a 9-year-old boy with inv-dup(15) syndrome in whom seizures were induced by emotionally gratifying stimuli. The reflex seizures began 5-20 s after the onset of repeated cheek-kissing from his mother or after viewing of pleasant or funny events. They were characterized by bilateral discharges involving mainly the temporal regions and evolving into myoclonic absence-like seizures. Nonemotional stimuli, such as a pinch, sucking or rubbing his cheeks, or the sound of the kiss alone, failed to provoke seizures. The seizures were resistant to antiepileptic (AED) treatments. Molecular genetic investigations revealed a correct methylation pattern of the chromosomes 15, and three copies (two maternal and one paternal) of the segment 15q11-q13, including the GABRb3 gene. We hypothesize that an overexpression of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibition accounts for the severe epilepsy that we observed in this patient.
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2/22. Compound genetic factors as a cause of male infertility: case report.

    A 40 year old healthy Chinese male with primary infertility was seen in a university male infertility and genetic counselling clinic. He presented with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) and the finding of testis atrophy. Fine needle aspiration mapping of the testis identified and localized sperm production within the testicles for in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Careful evaluation of testicular cytology revealed late maturation arrest of spermatogenesis. cystic fibrosis gene mutation analysis revealed heterozygosity for the 5T variant within the polypyrimidine tract of intron 8. cytogenetic analysis revealed a pericentric inversion of chromosome 6 with break points at p12 and q21 [46,XY,inv(6)(p12q21)]. This case illustrates that spermatogenesis is not necessarily normal with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens. Compound genetic defects may coexist and underlie male infertility.
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3/22. prenatal diagnosis of inverted duplicated 8p.

    The phenotype of inverted duplicated 8p, region 8p11.2-p23, reported in children and adults, includes: severe mental retardation, minor facial anomalies, agenesis of corpus callosum, and other malformations including those of heart and kidneys. We report on the prenatal diagnosis of 2 cases of inverted duplication 8p. Both cases were ascertained by abnormal level 2 ultrasound findings. Case 1 presented at 16.5 weeks of gestation with massive distention of the fetal bladder, bilateral hydronephrosis, abnormality of the lower lumbar spine, absence of the sacral spine and a Dandy-Walker variant (interhemispheric cyst and enlarged third ventricle). Case 2 presented at 30 weeks of gestation with agenesis of corpus callosum, slightly enlarged lateral ventricles, interhemispheric cyst and enlarged third ventricle, and possible coarctation of the aorta. The intracranial and cardiac anomalies were confirmed and further defined after delivery. cytogenetic analysis in both cases showed additional material on 8p. In both cases, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) defined the abnormal chromosome, as a pseudodicentric chromosome with duplication of the short arm from centromere to p23 and deletion from p23 to pter. Our findings support those of prior reports of the inverted duplicated 8p chromosome with multiple anomalies and add prenatal findings to our knowledge.
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4/22. Prenatal molecular cytogenetic diagnosis of partial tetrasomy 10p due to neocentromere formation in an inversion duplication analphoid marker chromosome.

    Neocentromeres are fully functional centromeres found on rearranged or marker chromosomes that have separated from endogenous centromeres. Neocentromeres often result in partial tri- or tetrasomy because their formation confers mitotic stability to acentric chromosome fragments that would normally be lost. We describe the prenatal identification and characterization of a de novo supernumerary marker chromosome (SMC) containing a neocentromere in a 20-wk fetus by the combined use of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). GTG-banding of fetal metaphases revealed a 47,XY,+mar karyotype in 100% of cultured amniocytes; parental karyotypes were both normal. Although sequential tricolor FISH using chromosome-specific painting probes identified a chromosome 10 origin of the marker, a complete panel of chromosome-specific centromeric satellite dna probes failed to hybridize to any portion of the marker. The presence of a neocentromere on the marker chromosome was confirmed by the absence of hybridization of an all-human-centromere alpha-satellite DNA probe, which hybridizes to all normal centromeres, and the presence of centromere protein (CENP)-C, which is associated specifically with active kinetochores. Based on CGH analysis and FISH with a chromosome 10p subtelomeric probe, the marker was found to be an inversion duplication of the distal portion of chromosome 10p. Thus, the proband's karyotype was 47,XY,+inv dup(10)(pter-->p14 approximately 15::p14 approximately 15-->neo-->pter), which is the first report of partial tetrasomy 10p resulting from an analphoid marker chromosome with a neocentromere. This study illustrates the use of several molecular strategies in distinguishing centric alphoid markers from neocentric analphoid markers.
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5/22. Pericentric inversion with partial 7(q35-->qter) duplication and 7pter deletion: diagnosis by cytogenetic and fish analysis in a 29-year-old male patient.

    We report on a 29-year-old male patient with an inverted 7(q35-qter) duplication diagnosed by combining cytogenetic and FISH studies. Traditional G-banding detected an abnormally long chromosome 7 which was further demonstrated to be entirely of chromosome 7 origin by using fluorescent whole chromosome 7 painting. The presence within the additional segment of a signal for 7q36 region (Williams control probe) and the absence of signals for 7q33 (Y938G5 probe) and 7q34 (Y815G5 probe) regions indicated that the breakpoint for this rearrangement was distal to 7q34 and proximal to 7q36. A distal 7p22 deletion was confirmed by the absence of signal for the 7p subtelomeric probe. Apart from kyphosis, developmental/mental retardation and abnormal ears, the clinical features of the present patient, who is the oldest individual ever reported with this duplication/deletion, were not typical for partial 7q trisomy syndrome. A review of the cases reported with 7(q35-qter) duplication is made and shows important clinical variability but constantly normal pre- and postnatal growth, a feature which can therefore be confirmed as distinctive of distal 7q trisomy syndrome.
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6/22. Mild generalized epilepsy and developmental disorder associated with large inv dup(15).

    PURPOSE: Several studies attempted to clarify the genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with inverted duplication of chromosome 15 [inv dup(15)], which is usually characterized by severe mental retardation and epilepsy in individuals with large duplications including the Prader-Willi/Angelman region. We report two patients with inv dup(15) who, in spite of a large duplication, had a mild phenotype including adult-onset epilepsy. This report may help to define the milder spectrum of the syndrome. methods: A 25-year-old girl with mild mental retardation had a 6-year history of absence seizures, with occasional head drop. Interictal EEG revealed diffuse spike-wave complexes. epilepsy was well controlled by a combination of lamotrigine (LTG) and valproate (VPA). The other patient, a 27-year-old man with mild mental retardation, had a 5-year history of rare generalized tonic-clonic seizure during sleep, and frequent episodes of unresponsiveness, which appeared to be atypical absence seizures on video-EEG recordings. A combination of VPA and LTG led to a remarkable improvement, although no complete control. RESULTS: Molecular analysis revealed a large inv dup15 in both patients. CONCLUSIONS: The discrepancy between the mild phenotype and the severe chromosomal abnormality detected in these two patients further supports the notion that the site of breakpoint might be contributory to the inv dup(15) phenotype. Inv dup(15) should be considered in atypical cases of generalized epilepsy of adult onset without clear-cut etiology.
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7/22. Disruption of a new X linked gene highly expressed in brain in a family with two mentally retarded males.

    BACKGROUND: mental retardation (MR) affects 2-3% of the human population and some of these cases are genetically determined. Although several genes responsible for MR have been identified, many cases have still not been explained. methods: We have identified a pericentric inversion of the x chromosome inv(X)(p22.3;q13.2) segregating in a family where two male carriers have severe MR while female carriers are not affected. RESULTS: The molecular characterisation of this inversion led us to identify two new genes which are disrupted by the breakpoints: KIAA2022 in Xq13.2 and P2RY8 in Xp22.3. These genes were not previously fully characterised in humans. KIAA2022 encodes a protein which lacks significant homology to any other known protein and is highly expressed in the brain. P2RY8 is a member of the purine nucleotide G-protein coupled receptor gene family. It is located in the pseudo-autosomal region of the x chromosome and is not expressed in brain. CONCLUSIONS: Because the haploinsufficiency of P2RY8 in carrier mothers does not have a phenotypic consequence, we propose that the severe MR of the affected males in this family is due to the absence of the KIAA2022 gene product. However, screening 20 probands from X linked MR families did not reveal mutations in KIAA2022. Nonetheless, the high expression of this gene in fetal brain and in the adult cerebral cortex could be consistent with a role in brain development and/or cognitive function.
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8/22. Familial pericentric inversion of chromosome 18: behavioral abnormalities in patients heterozygous for either the dup(18p)/del(18q) or dup(18q)/del(18p) recombinant chromosome.

    We describe a family in which the largest hitherto reported pericentric inversion of chromosome 18, inv(18)(p11.22q23), segregates. Individuals heterozygous for the nonrecombinant inversion were unaffected. However, those heterozygous for either the dup(18p)/del(18q) or dup(18q) /del(18p) recombinant exhibited mild learning difficulty, personality disorders and deficient social behavior in the absence of mental retardation. Of the three family members tested, the behavioral abnormalities were more prominent in the two individuals with the dup(18p)/del(18q) recombinant than in the one with the dup(18q)/del(18p) recombinant. genetic counseling issues for this family, in particular for the affected, include the enhanced probability of reduced fertility as well as the recurrence risk of the parental inversion equaling 1/2 in surviving offspring. This observation kindles the interest in determining the frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements in individuals with learning difficulty and deficiency in social interaction, phenotypic features often considered to be of multifactorial causation.
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9/22. epilepsy and electroencephalographic findings in pericentric inversion of chromosome 12.

    epilepsy, together with mental retardation, represents a common manifestation of chromosomal aberrations. Specific electroencephalographic (EEG) and epileptic patterns have been described in several chromosomal disorders, such as Angelman's syndrome, Miller-Dieker syndrome, Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, and ring 20 syndrome. A peculiar electroclinical pattern has also been identified in trisomy 12p syndrome. We report three patients with a pericentric inversion of chromosome 12, with breakpoints localized to p11-q13 and affected by epilepsy or EEG anomalies. Two suffered from epilepsy, which, in the clinical course, was mainly characterized by complex partial seizures with a semiology related to the temporal lobe. In one patient, myoclonic absences, head drop, and massive jerky attacks were also present. In both patients, generalized 3 Hz bursts were registered, together with multifocal and focal paroxysmal activity, which were most prominent in the temporoparietal and temporal areas, respectively. In the other patient, who had no epilepsy, EEG showed bioccipital paroxysmal activity. In all patients, the clinical picture was characterized by the presence of moderate mental retardation and behavioral disorders. The incidence of epilepsy or EEG anomalies among patients with a pericentric inversion of chromosome 12 remains to be ascertained. However, the present study confirms that chromosome 12 anomalies can be associated with epilepsy. Although myoclonic absence-like episodes can occasionally be part of the epileptic phenotype, the electroclinical pattern in pericentric inversion of chromosome 12 seems to be more polymorphic when compared with that observed in trisomy 12p syndrome.
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10/22. Topiramate-valproate-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy syndrome: case report.

    A 15-year-old boy with inverted duplication of chromosome 15 was admitted for acute onset of irritability, increasing sleepiness, and worsening of seizures. He had been on valproate and other anti-convulsants. However, he was found to have hyperammonemia within 2 weeks after the addition of low-dose topiramate to valproate. He recovered within 7 days after discontinuation of valproate. Topiramate was tailed off. The reintroduction of valproate monotherapy caused hyperammonemia again without clinical features of encephalopathy. He also developed anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome following the use of phenytoin. We propose the term topiramate-valproate-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy syndrome to include the following features: excessive sleepiness or somnolence, aggravation of seizures, hyperammonemia, and absence of triphasic waves on electroencephalography in any individual on simultaneous topiramate-valproate therapy. The ammonia level ranged from 1.5 to 2 times normal. The serum valproate level might be within the therapeutic range. The possible mechanism is topiramate-induced aggravation of all the known complications of valproate monotherapy. This condition is reversible with cessation of either valproate or topiramate.
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Last update: April 2009
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