Cases reported "Hypoprothrombinemias"

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1/57. Hereditary prothrombin deficiency presenting as intracranial haematoma in infancy.

    Hereditary deficiency of prothrombin is a rare autosomal recessive bleeding disorder, with severe bleeding diathesis in homozygotes, but rarely resulting in intracranial haematoma. We describe two infants of consanguineous parents, presenting with acute subdural haematoma. Because such haematomas in infancy are highly indicative of trauma caused by child battering and because the socio-economic status of the family was unstable, there was a suspicion of child battering. However, further investigations revealed a bleeding diathesis due to a prothrombin deficiency. dna analysis of the prothrombin gene showed homozygosity for a novel mutation, substituting Lys for Glu at codon 7 and resulting in decreased specific clotting activity. We discuss the probability of bleeding diathesis versus child battering in the aetiology of intracranial haematoma.
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2/57. Acquired bleeding disorder in a patient with malignant lymphoma: antibody-mediated prothrombin deficiency.

    BACKGROUND: Bleeding manifestations secondary to acquired hemostatic abnormalities in cancer patients have been well described. Bleeding due to the development of hemostatic inhibitors is observed less frequently. In this report, the authors describe a patient with a low grade lymphoma who presented with an acquired bleeding disorder and abnormal hemostatic screening tests. methods: Patient plasma samples were collected initially and during the course of treatment. Mixing studies and specific coagulation factor assays were performed to detect and confirm any deficiencies. Patient immunoglobulin g was isolated from plasma, and binding to prothrombin was demonstrated by immunoblot method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. RESULTS: Initial prolongations in the prothombin time and the activated partial thromboplastin time suggested a factor deficiency in the common pathway of coagulation. Factor assays confirmed that the coagulation abnormality in this patient was the result of an acquired prothrombin (factor II) deficiency. This was confirmed by an immunoassay for prothrombin antigen. Further studies demonstrated the presence of a noninhibitory antibody to prothrombin that interacted with a calcium dependent epitope. CONCLUSIONS: Successful treatment of the lymphoma resulted in clearance of the antibody and complete correction of all hemostatic abnormalities and manifestations. An acquired prothrombin deficiency has not been reported previously in association with a malignancy, and this patient represents the first such documented case.
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3/57. Combined deficiency of factors II, VII, IX, and X (Borgschulte-Grigsby deficiency) in pregnancy.

    BACKGROUND: Combined deficiency of vitamin k-dependent coagulation factors (II, VII, IX, X) is an uncommon challenge for the expectant gravida. CASE: A 34-year-old primigravida had congenital combined deficiency of factors II, VII, IX, and X that were incompletely sensitive to vitamin k. She had an altered form of vitamin k-dependent factors that retained immunologic activity but lacked coagulant activity and the normal complement of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues. She required vitamin k supplementation throughout her life. After an uneventful pregnancy she had postpartum hemorrhage resulting from an episiotomy. Fresh frozen plasma was administered to achieve hemostasis. The remainder of her postpartum course was normal. CONCLUSION: Combined congenital deficiency of factors II, VII, IX, and X can be managed in pregnancy with the use of vitamin k and fresh frozen plasma.
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4/57. diagnosis of lupus anticoagulant in the lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    We report a severe hemorrhagic disorder in two pediatric patients with lupus anticoagulant (LA) associated to acquired factor II (prothrombin) deficiency. In both patients, hemorrhagic symptoms resolved after corticosteroid therapy. Serial coagulation studies showed that Staclot LA assay was more sensitive than DVVconfirm and Staclot PNP tests to confirm the presence of LA when associated with severe factor II deficiency. Both patients had non-neutralizing anti-prothrombin antibodies and their titers inversely correlated with factor II activity (r = -1.0, P < 0.0001). Associated findings in these patients included positive immunologic tests for systemic lupus erythematosus, a positive anti-cardiolipin antibody, and anti-beta(2) GPI antibodies in one case. Our findings point out the difficulty in diagnosing LA associated with acquired factor II deficiency and suggest that, in confirmation of its phospholipid dependency, the inclusion of a source of normal human plasma in the test sequence to correct for any factor deficiency and a confirmatory step utilizing hexagonal (II) phase phospholipids may be crucial to the diagnosis of LA in some patients with LA-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome.
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5/57. Four factor deficiency.

    Four factor deficiency is variably associated with mild to fatal bleeding. We describe a 3-month-old boy, born of consanguineous parents, who presented with a right subdural haematoma and a clotting screen showing a prothrombin time (PT) > 100 s, an activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) > 150 s, a fibrinogen of 0.4 g/l, and fibrinogen degradation products < 1 microg/ml. He was given 300 U of factor ix concentrate (containing factors II and X) and 1 mg of vitamin k intravenously. Forty-five minutes later, clotting tests showed a PT of 24 s, an aPTT of 31 s and a fibrinogen of 2.6 g/l. The patient was found to be deficient in all the vitamin k-dependent factors: factors II, VII, IX and X, protein c and protein S. A 14-base deletion was found in intron 1 (bases 1056-1069) of the gamma-carboxylase gene. The patient and his elder sister were homozygous for this deletion, whereas both parents were heterozygous. The deletion destroys a reverse palindromic sequence (TTGAGGCAA) of the type often associated with cis-acting elements. Our results suggest that this element may be involved in the regulation of gamma-carboxylase expression. Expression studies are being completed so that this region can be definitively ascribed as a cis-acting element involved in gene regulation.
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6/57. A common mutation, Arg457-->Gln, links prothrombin deficiencies in the Puerto Rican population.

    Five unrelated families with Puerto Rican ancestry were identified as having at least one member with bleeding due to a prothrombin deficiency. Genetic prothrombin deficiencies are extremely rare, but at the University of puerto rico Hemophilia Center, prothrombin deficiency is the third most common congenital coagulation factor deficiency. Because puerto rico is relatively isolated, there was a reasonable expectation of a founder effect. Prothrombin genes from probands and their parents were directly sequenced from PCR amplified exons using forward and reverse primers. Four novel prothrombin mutations were identified. The first, a G-->A substitution at dna position 10150 predicting an Arg457-->Gln (R457Q) replacement, is common to all five families. In two of the families, the proband children are homozygous for R457Q. In the other three families, the probands are compound heterozygotes for R457Q and one of the other three mutations, which include another point mutation (gamma16Q), a deletion and a splice junction mutation. The two point mutations have been designated puerto rico I and puerto rico II. The crystal structure of alpha-thrombin predicts that the R457Q mutation removes a salt bridge that links the A- and B-chains of thrombin. The primary effect of this defect appears to be destabilization of the circulating prothrombin, creating a moderate hypoprothrombinemia. However, prothrombin antigen/activity ratios indicate a dysprothrombinemia as well, most likely due to the inability of R457Q prothrombin to activate fully to thrombin.
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7/57. Prothrombin Shanghai: hypoprothrombinaemia caused by substitution of Gla29 by Gly.

    Prothrombin deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. In this study, we reported a Chinese family with hereditary prothrombin deficiency. The proposita had a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, 71.6 s) and prothrombin time (PT, 28.0 s). The coagulation factors activities were normal except that prothrombin coagulation activity was markedly reduced, and the prothrombin antigen level was moderately decreased. Nucleotide sequencing of amplified dna revealed a novel mutation, Glu (GAG) to Gly (GGG) at residue 29, which normally undergoes gamma-carboxylation within the Gla domain of prothrombin. The proposita was identified as homozygous, while her father, mother and maternal grandmother were heterozygous for the mutation. Gla29 has been demonstrated as one of the key residue for Ca2 -binding, membrane interaction and biological activity of prothrombin.
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8/57. Successful prophylactic treatment for bleeding in a girl with severe hereditary prothrombin deficiency using a prothrombin complex concentrate (Bebulin VH).

    The authors describe the evaluation and course of severe hereditary prothrombin deficiency in a 14-year-old girl first diagnosed at age 4 years. Detailed is the evolution of her treatment from episodic fresh-frozen plasma after bleeding events to prophylactic home infusions with the prothrombin complex concentrate Bebulin VH. Pharmacokinetic data on factor II recovery and half-life are presented. The patient has been essentially free of abnormal bleeding while on this prophylactic regimen for 17 months, with no toxicities and with a much improved quality of life.
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9/57. anterior spinal artery syndrome in two children with genetic thrombotic disorders.

    BACKGROUND: Spinal cord infarction is a well-described, but rare, etiology of myelopathy, especially in children. The most common syndrome, anterior spinal artery syndrome (ASAS), is caused by interruption of blood flow to the anterior spinal artery, producing ischemia in the anterior two-thirds of the cord, with resulting neurologic deficits. Causes of ASAS include aortic disease, thoracolumbar surgery, sepsis, hypotension, and thromboembolic disorders. methods: case reports of 2 patients. RESULTS: Two children developed spinal cord infarctions consistent with ASAS, mostly likely caused by previously undiagnosed thrombotic disorders. A child with prothrombin variant experienced acute bilateral lower limb weakness without any preceding event. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed increased T2 signal in the anterior cord from midthoracic level to the conus medullaris. A child with protein s deficiency developed lower limb weakness 1 day after a posterior thoracolumbar fusion for idiopathic scoliosis. Computed tomography (CT) myelogram revealed no spinal cord compression. The prothrombin variant mutation is associated with a 2-fold risk of thrombotic events. Individuals with protein s deficiency have an 8-fold increased risk of thrombosis. CONCLUSION: As knowledge of the coagulation pathways grows, it is likely that more patients with spinal cord infarctions will be diagnosed with genetic thrombotic disorders as the etiology of their injury. We review these two disorders, prothrombin variant and protein s deficiency, and the considerations for long-term anticoagulation.
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10/57. Prothrombin Suresnes: a case of homozygous F299V mutation responsible for hypodysprothrombinemia.

    A patient with a severe prothrombin deficiency and a hemorrhagic diathesis was found to have positive cross-reactive material in plasma and a homozygous F299V mutation (F7V in the A chain). This mutation reinforces the previous conclusion that the A chain affects the geometry of the catalytic triad. Marked prolongation of the Taipan venom and Russell venom clotting times also demonstrated a defective activation mechanism and a defective interaction with factor xa.
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Last update: September 2014