Cases reported "Hepatorenal Syndrome"

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1/32. Successful treatment of hepatic hydrothorax with octreotide.

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a rare complication of cirrhosis. Controlling ascites formation is the goal of therapy. We report the case of an adult patient presenting with alcoholic cirrhosis who developed first a symptomatic hydrothorax, refractory to diuretics and fluid and sodium restriction, and then an hepatorenal syndrome. Treatment consisted of chest tube insertion and 5 days' intravenous infusion of octreotide. Complete clinical and biological data were reviewed. octreotide administration resulted in an increased urinary outflow and sodium output, concomitant with improved renal function. The patient has been free of symptoms after discharge from hospital for a follow-up period of 5 months. This observation raises interesting issues regarding the possible utility of splanchnic vasoconstrictors, reducing portal hypertension, in the treatment of refractory hepatic hydrothorax.
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2/32. Terlipressin plus hydroxyethyl starch infusion: an effective treatment for hepatorenal syndrome.

    ornipressin is a vasopressin analogue that can cause potent splanchnic vasoconstriction. It has been shown that, in combination with albumin infusion, ornipressin is able to reverse hepatorenal syndrome. However, its clinical use is limited by possible severe ischaemic complications. In our case, a 47-year-old man received a right hemihepatectomy for cholangiocellular carcinoma. On post-operative day three, he developed hepatorenal syndrome with ascites, peripheral oedema and oliguria (250-500 ml/day). Serum creatinine was increased to 3.5 mg/dl. The patient was treated with terlipressin, another vasopressin analogue with fewer side effects than ornipressin, (1 mg every 4 h intravenously) and hydroxyethyl starch (500 ml/day). urine output increased to 3000 ml/day, serum creatinine decreased to normal range within 4 days and ascites and oedema disappeared. We hereby report the first case of successful treatment of hepatorenal syndrome with terlipressin and hydroxyethyl starch, which appears to be a safe and effective treatment.
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3/32. Is spontaneous bacterial peritonitis an inducer of vasopressin analogue side-effects? A case report.

    In recent years, the use of vasopressin analogues in the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome has become an effective therapeutic strategy leading to improved survival and often allowing the completion of liver transplantation. Terlipressin, in particular, has proven to be safe and effective. Due to the limited number of patients treated so far, it is, however, difficult to draw any definite conclusions on the optimal dosage and on the occurrence of side-effects in these patients. The case is reported of an ascitic cirrhotic patient who developed spontaneous bacterial peritonitis followed by a type-I hepatorenal syndrome. Treatment with terlipressin boluses (0.5 mg/4 h) associated with albumin infusion was then started. The course of the disease was monitored by clinical and laboratory means. After 10 boluses of terlipressin, rectorrhagia and severe ischaemic complications involving the skin of the abdomen, lower limbs, scrotus, and penis, occurred. These ischaemic complications improved after terlipressin withdrawal, while renal failure evolved leading to the patient's death. This case report shows that, in patients with type-I hepatorenal syndrome, the use of terlipressin, even at low dosages, may induce life-threatening ischaemic complications and, moreover, suggests that the recent occurrence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, even if properly treated, may significantly increase the risk of major ischaemic complications.
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4/32. Combined treatment of liver failure and hepatorenal syndrome with orthotopic liver transplantation.

    hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a severe complication of liver failure with high mortality. The pathogenesis of this reversible functional renal failure is not yet clearly understood. diagnosis is based upon the association of clinical and biological criteria. A patient was admitted to our institution for severe liver failure secondary to an exacerbation of cirrhosis, where he developed a fulminant hepatorenal syndrome. Both, the renal and hepatic failure were successfully treated by orthotopic liver transplantation. Special attention was paid to the immunosuppressive treatment with cyclosporine whose use, we believe, should be delayed until function has partially recovered.
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5/32. calciphylaxis associated with acute, reversible renal failure in the setting of alcoholic cirrhosis.

    We describe a case of calciphylaxis in a 47-year-old man with alcohol-induced end-stage liver disease and acute renal failure secondary to hepatorenal syndrome. Possible contributing factors included transiently impaired renal function, protein c and S deficiencies, elevated calcium-phosphate product, hyperphosphatemia, low serum albumin, repeated albumin infusions, and elevated alkaline phosphatase level.
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ranking = 1
keywords = syndrome
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6/32. A case of budd-chiari syndrome secondary to multiple thrombogenic conditions: a case report and review of literature.

    This report describes a case of budd-chiari syndrome caused by latent polycythemia vera and factor v Leiden mutation. This syndrome usually occurs due to thrombosis of hepatic veins or membranous obstruction of inferior vena cava. The most common reasons for thrombosis are manifest polycythemia vera and the other prothrombotic conditions. Recently, latent polycythemia vera and factor v Leiden mutation have been reported in increasing frequency. In this report, we aimed to emphasize that all prothrombotic conditions must be evaluated while investigating the etiology of budd-chiari syndrome, including latent polycythemia vera and factor v Leiden mutation, and appropriate antithrombotic and surgical therapies must be performed without delay.
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ranking = 7
keywords = syndrome
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7/32. The clinical course of patients with type 1 hepatorenal syndrome maintained on hemodialysis.

    GOAL: Report the natural coarse of hepatorenal syndrome in 4 patients who were maintained on chronic hemodialysis. BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of hepatorenal syndrome carries a grave prognosis with a mortality rate >90% and a median survival time of <2 weeks without orthotopic liver transplantation. STUDY: We report the clinical course of 4 patients with hepatorenal syndrome who underwent long-term (greater than 3 weeks) hemodialysis in an attempt to bridge them to orthotopic liver transplantation. The etiologies of cirrhosis were: chronic hepatitis c infection (n = 2), alcoholic liver disease (n = 1), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (n = 1). RESULTS: Mean survival time on hemodialysis was 236 days (range: 31 to 460 days). All patients survived their initial hospitalization and were discharged from the hospital. However, only one patient received orthotopic liver transplantation. Mean number of hospital admissions was 11 (range: 4 to 18) while receiving hemodialysis at an average rate of 2.2 (range: 1.1 to 5) admissions/patient month. Mean number of days spent in hospital while on hemodialysis support was 85 days (range: 15 to 199 days) at an average rate of 11.2 (range: 8.3 to 15) hospital days/patient month. An average of 33% (range: 26% to 48%) of the days of the prolonged survival on hemodialysis was spent in hospital. CONCLUSION: Although our 4 patients with hepatorenal syndrome demonstrated long-term survival with hemodialysis, their prolonged survival was at the cost of a very heavy burden of morbidity and in-patient stay. The advisability of maintenance hemodialysis in patients with hepatorenal syndrome should be judged on an individual basis.
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ranking = 9
keywords = syndrome
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8/32. Reconsidering hepatorenal syndrome. Throw in the towel? Not so fast!

    For many years, hepatorenal syndrome was considered a uniformly and rapidly fatal complication of end-stage liver disease. Although the syndrome still carries a poor long-term prognosis, increased understanding of its hemodynamic derangements has led to new pharmacologic treatments that significantly improve short-term outcomes. In this article, Drs Tong, Hurley, and Hayashi discuss a case of remarkable reversal of hepatorenal syndrome with use of oral midodrine hydrochloride, subcutaneous octreotide acetate, and intravenous albumin. The authors highlight the great progress that has been made in this field and review new therapeutic options that are on the market or under study. It is important for physicians who are caring for patients with hepatorenal syndrome to know about and consider the available treatments before an approach of "supportive care only" is taken.
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ranking = 8
keywords = syndrome
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9/32. Artificial renal and liver support in a severe hepatorenal syndrome of childhood.

    This case report describes a special management approach in a child aged 4.5 years with a severe form of hepatorenal syndrome in which the final diagnosis was familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL). The patient presented with grade IV hepatic coma and acute renal failure (ARF). While the diagnosis was difficult at the time of admission, as well as during acute treatment, artificial liver support was established for elimination of bilirubin and other metabolic by-products by using charcoal column plasma perfusion (CCPP) and bilirubin-adsorbing resin column plasma perfusion (BRCPP). Serum levels of bilirubin showed a notable decrease after each of the four treatment sessions. Additional artificial renal function replacement by continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration and hemodialysis (CAVH, CAVHD, respectively) had a marked lowering effect on urea and creatinine serum concentrations. Both artificial liver and renal support contributed to the general clinical improvement and survival of the patient. Further experience in these therapies will be needed to establish better prognosis in such fatal or acute similar conditions.
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ranking = 5
keywords = syndrome
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10/32. Tc-99m DTPA and I-131 hippurate renography. Findings in hepatorenal syndrome.

    Tc-99m DTPA and I-131 OIH renography were performed simultaneously in a patient with hepatorenal syndrome. blood flow was delayed and diminished bilaterally; there was Tc-99m DTPA and I-131 OIH retention in the parenchyma with no evidence of tracer retention in the collecting systems. The I-131 OIH renogram curve demonstrated a steadily rising pattern, whereas the Tc-99m DTPA curve demonstrated an initial vascular peak and was subsequently flat. There was no appreciable response to furosemide. These findings are not specific for hepatorenal syndrome, and the diagnosis is based on the characteristic clinical setting and the exclusion of other causes of renal failure. A brief literature review and a discussion of differential diagnosis are included.
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ranking = 6
keywords = syndrome
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Last update: September 2014