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21/34. Spinal intradural-intramedullary cavernous malformation. Case report and literature review.

    Cavernous angiomas or cavernomas are uncommon vascular malformations of the central nervous system and spinal involvement is much rarer especially in pediatric patients. We report a case of spinal intradural-intramedullary cavernous angioma in a 14-year-old male child. The cavernoma was located at the level of C6-C7 at the dorsal part of the spinal cord. The diagnosis was made with MRI and the patient underwent surgical treatment. The cavernoma was totally removed with laminotomy and microsurgical techniques. Somatosensory evoked potential monitoring was also used peroperatively. The clinical, radiological and surgical features of this rare case were presented and discussed with reference to the literature.
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keywords = spinal
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22/34. Cavernous malformation within a schwannoma: review of the literature and hypothesis of a common genetic etiology.

    The finding of cavernous malformations within tumors of the central or peripheral nervous system is a rare occurrence. We report a case of a histologically proven cavernous malformation found within an eighth cranial nerve schwannoma in a 76-year-old man. The patient presented with progressive loss of hearing on the left, facial pain and dysesthesia. Symptoms improved significantly after the tumor was subtotally resected through a left retrosigmoid craniotomy. Including the present report, 34 cases of cavernous malformations associated with tumors of nervous system origin, 24 cases (71%) involving tumors of Schwann cell origin, and 9 cases (26%) involving gliomas have been published. The cases were classified into two forms based on the type of association. Conjoined association, in which the cavernous malformation is located within the tissue of the nervous system tumor, and discrete association, in which the cavernous malformation and nervous system tumor are in separate locations. We explore the etiology of this association and hypothesize that a common genetic pathway may be involved in a majority of these cases.
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ranking = 0.065321155359894
keywords = nerve
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23/34. Cavernous haemangiomas of the anterior visual pathways. Short review on occasion of an exceptional case.

    The anterior optic pathways are rarely affected by vascular malformations. In a meticulous literature review, 42 published cases of patients with vascular malformations within optic nerves, chiasma and/or optic tract were found, 30 of them being diagnosed as cavernous haemangiomas. All of them suffered from visual disturbances; in 38.1% previous symptoms had occurred. Surgical treatment resulted in major improvement in most patients.We include a further patient with a cavernous haemangioma of the optic chiasma and left optic tract who presented with an acute defect of the right visual field and severe retro-orbital pain. We succeeded in total excision of the malformation via a neuronavigationally guided approach. In the postoperative course, vision of our patient improved immediately and was found to be completely normal three months after the surgical intervention. Considering our patient and the published cases in the literature, we are of the opinion that microsurgical excision is a safe and efficient treatment for these rare pathologies.
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ranking = 0.065321155359894
keywords = nerve
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24/34. Cavernous angioma within an olfactory groove meningioma. Case report.

    The authors present the case of a 60-year-old woman who was admitted to their institution after suffering a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Neuroimaging data demonstrated an olfactory groove meningioma surrounded by a slight edema, but there was no evidence of SAH, although results of the lumbar puncture demonstrated xanthochromic cerebrospinal fluid. angiography confirmed the diagnosis of meningioma, but results of magnetic resonance imaging led the authors to suspect a cavernoma within the meningioma. This diagnosis was established by pathological examination of the resected lesion. The patient did well and was discharged soon after surgery. This very rare association and the propensity of each of these lesions to be revealed by hemorrhage are discussed.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = spinal
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25/34. Cavernous malformation of the internal auditory canal.

    Cavernous malformations of the internal auditory canal are a rare clinical entity that, however, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intracanalicular masses. Even though this type of malformation is usually associated with an evident gadolinium enhancement at MR examination, in some patients, like in this case, the signal characteristics may be not sufficiently specific to allow the correct preoperative diagnosis. Nevertheless, the clinical history, in particular, a rapid onset of cranial nerve deficits, lead to the suspicion of a vascular malformation.
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ranking = 0.065321155359894
keywords = nerve
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26/34. Intrasellar cavernous hemangioma.

    Reports of intrasellar cavernous hemangioma are rare. They are usually incidental findings at autopsy, or initially mistaken for pituitary adenoma and treated accordingly. There are no specific symptoms. Cranial nerve palsy has occasionally been reported in patients with cavernous hemangioma, with or without sellar extension. However, intrasellar cavernous hemangioma with extension into the cavernous sinus resulting in oculomotor palsy has not been reported. We present a rare case of intrasellar cavernous hemangioma and discuss the diagnosis and management. Total surgical removal is recommended. However, attempts to resect the parasellar component of the lesion may be associated with high morbidity. Therefore, surgical cranial nerve decompression in the acute stage followed by stereotactic radiosurgery for the residual lesion may be an alternative.
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ranking = 0.13064231071979
keywords = nerve
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27/34. Hemorrhage of cavernous malformations during pregnancy and in the peripartum period: causal or coincidence? Case report and review of the literature.

    There is growing evidence to suggest that pregnancy may increase the risk of hemorrhage from cavernous malformations (CMs). In the present case, a 21-year-old primigravida was admitted to the authors' neurosurgical service after a cesarean section. Three weeks before admission she had experienced rapidly progressive bilateral lower-extremity paresthesias. Spinal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed the presence of an intramedullary thoracic lesion. On T2-weighted MR images, heterogeneous signal intensity with a rim of decreased intensity was demonstrated in the spine. The mass was successfully resected, and 1 year later the patient's symptoms had resolved completely. This is the fourth reported case of a spinal intramedullary CM that became symptomatic during pregnancy. The pathogenesis and management of this entity are reviewed.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = spinal
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28/34. The anterolateral partial vertebrectomy approach for ventrally located cervical intramedullary cavernous angiomas.

    OBJECTIVE: We report three cases with ventral cervical intramedullary cavernous angiomas. An anterolateral partial vertebrectomy was performed to surgically approach and successfully resect these lesions. MATERIALS AND methods: All three patients presented with numbness in the upper extremities and investigation revealed a cavernous angioma on the ventral aspect of the spinal cord in each case. The lesion was exposed by an anterolateral partial vertebrectomy in all cases. Postoperative stabilization was achieved by using autografted iliac bone in all patients. In two patients, locking screws and plates were also used. RESULTS: Complete resection of the cavernous angioma was performed in all patients. There was symptomatic relief in all cases, and there was no postoperative morbidity. CONCLUSION: Anterolateral partial vertebrectomy provides direct exposure and is probably an ideal approach for selected cases with ventrally located intramedullary cavernous angiomas.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = spinal
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29/34. Removal of an orbital apex hemangioma using an endoscopic transethmoidal approach: technical note.

    OBJECTIVE: The posterior orbit contains a number of important and vulnerable structures, including the optic nerve, the ophthalmic artery and vein, and the ocular muscles and their motor nerves, which makes surgical access to the lesion in this region quite difficult. Transfrontal, transfrontal-ethmoidal, and transmaxillary procedures have the disadvantage of possible injuries to a number of nontumor structures, whereas an endoscopic transethmoidal approach is a minimally invasive surgery for the retrobulbar lesions. Retrobulbar cavernous hemangioma was successfully removed by a transethmoidal approach. methods: Tumor removal was performed in a patient with an intraconal cavernous hemangioma of approximately 15 mm in diameter. By a transethmoidal approach, the medial-inferior part of the orbit, as well as the apex of the orbit, were clearly visualized after endonasal ethmoidectomy. After the removal of the medial orbital bone, the orbital periosteum was incised and elevated. By elevating the orbital fat, the tumor could be identified separately from the orbital contents. RESULTS: Cavernous hemangioma at the orbital apex was removed without complications. CONCLUSION: An endoscopic transethmoidal approach, which requires no skin incision, is a minimally invasive surgery for retrobulbar orbital tumor, leading to excellent cosmetic results with less bleeding.
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ranking = 0.13064231071979
keywords = nerve
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30/34. The role of intraoperative monitoring of oculomotor and trochlear nuclei -safe entry zone to tegmental lesions.

    OBJECTIVE: A safe entry zone to tegmental lesions was identified based on intraoperative electrophysiological findings, the compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) from the extraocular muscles, and anatomic considerations. This entry zone is bordered caudally by the intramesencephalic path of the trochlear, laterally by the spinothalamic tract, and rostrally by the caudal margin of the brachium of the superior colliculus. methods: Four intrinsic midbrain lesions were operated upon via the safe entry zone using the infratentorial paramedian supracerebellar approach. All lesions involved the tegmentum and included an anaplastic astrocytoma, a metastatic brain tumor, a radiation necrosis, and a cavernous angioma. CMAP were bilaterally monitored from the inferior recti (for oculomotor function) and superior oblique (for trochlear nerve function) muscles. RESULTS: In three of four cases, CMAP related to the oculomotor nerve were obtained upon stimulation at the cavity wall after removal of the tumor. Stimulation at the surface of the quadrigeminal plate, however, did not cause any CMAP response. Using this monitoring as an indicator, the lesions were totally removed. CONCLUSIONS: In the surgery of tegmental lesions, CMAP monitoring from extraocular muscles is particularly helpful to prevent damage to crucial neural structures during removal of intrinsic lesions, but less so to select the site of the medullary incision. The approach via the lateral part of the colliculi is considered to be a safe route to approach the tegmental lesions.
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ranking = 0.13064231071979
keywords = nerve
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