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Cases reported "Exotropia"

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1/7. Primary epiploic appendagitis: MRI findings.

    Primary epiploic appendagitis (PEA) occurs secondary to inflammation of an epiploic appendage, and is considered to be a rare cause of acute abdomen. In this case report, we describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of PEA correlated with computed tomographic (CT) findings. MRI findings included an oval shaped fat intensity mass with a central dot on T1- and T2-weighted images, which possessed an enhancing rim on postgadolinium T1-weighted fat saturated images. The lesion was best visualized on postcontrast T1-weighted fat saturated images. MRI findings of PEA should be considered in the differential diagnosis with the other causes of acute abdominal pain.
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2/7. Midgut volvulus in an adult patient.

    The authors report on a case of midgut volvulus in a 27-year-old man who presented with bilious vomiting and acute abdominal pain. US demonstrated a reversal of the normal relationship between the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and superior mesenteric vein (SMV). A clockwise whirlpool sign, diagnostic for midgut volvulus, was not visualised. In a further assessment, upper gastrointestinal series demonstrated obstruction in the second part of the duodenum highly suspicious of Ladd's bands. Malpositioning of bowel structures, as already suggested by the reversal of the SMA and SMV on ultrasound, and a distinctive whirl pattern due to the bowel wrapping around the SMA was demonstrated on CT. Furthermore angiography revealed focal twisting of the SMA. US is the first imaging modality to perform in suspicion of midgut volvulus. When inconclusive, CT is in our opinion the next stage in the diagnostic work-up.
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3/7. Peritoneoscopic placement of peritoneal dialysis catheter and bowel perforation: experience of an interventional nephrology program.

    BACKGROUND: Bowel perforation is an uncommon but serious complication of peritoneoscopic peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter insertion. The approach to diagnosis of bowel perforation utilizing this technique has not been previously published. The authors report their experience with the diagnosis and management of bowel perforation in the context of peritoneoscopic placement of PD catheters. methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 750 PD catheters inserted over a 12-year period (January 1991 to May 2003) utilizing peritoneoscopic technique. RESULTS: Six (0.8%) patients experienced bowel perforation during the procedure. The diagnosis was made immediately during the procedure in 5 (83%) of the 6 patients. Of these 5, peritoneoscopy confirmed intrabowel position of the cannula by visualizing bowel mucosa (n = 3) and hard stool (n = 1). The fifth patient showed extrusion of fecal matter upon trocar withdrawal before peritoneoscopy. All 5 had emanation of foul-smelling gas through the cannula. Bowel rest and broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics were initiated. Of the 5, 1 required surgery, whereas the others were discharged home after 3 days. The sixth patient had fever, severe peritoneal irritation, and polymicrobial peritonitis the morning after the procedure. In this patient, no evidence of bowel injury was noted during the procedure except for brief emanation of foul-smelling gas. He required surgical intervention. CONCLUSION: Bowel perforation can be diagnosed immediately in most patients undergoing peritoneoscopic PD catheter insertion. A majority of these patients can be treated medically. The surgical team should be consulted if the patient shows clinical deterioration or has signs of peritoneal irritation.
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4/7. Intestinal injury after lumbar discectomy.

    In a review of 5,200 lumbar discectomies performed from 1974 to 1989, two patients sustained a ventral perforation of the disc space followed by isolated small intestinal injury. Both patients underwent lumbar discectomy at the lumbosacral junction and presented with signs and symptoms of acute abdominal distress within three days after the operation. At surgical laparotomy, small tears were noted in the ileum, which were closed primarily. The patients had an uneventful recovery. The results of a review of 11 instances reported in the literature suggest that isolated intestinal injuries usually occur postoperatively at the lumbosacral junction and involve the small intestine. Factors, such as body habitus, surgical experience, patient positioning and types of instruments, as well as the use of a surgical microscope, do not appear to modify the risk of intestinal injury. After discectomy, patients may present with acute abdominal signs and symptoms or chronic wound infections. work-up studies include evaluation of vascular structures and ureters either roentgenographically or at abdominal exploration. A high index of suspicion and adequate disc space visualization during discectomy may reduce the incidence of this complication.
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5/7. clostridium difficile colitis presenting as an acute abdomen: case report and review of the literature.

    Pseudomembranous colitis associated with clostridium difficile rarely manifests as an acute abdomen and even more rarely as an acute abdomen without abnormal radiologic studies. The following is a case report of a 52-year-old white man who had an acute abdomen without abnormal radiologic studies, and was given a final diagnosis of C difficile colitis. Surgery was averted only by the ability to do an expeditious flexible sigmoidoscopy with the visualization of pseudomembranes. diagnosis was later confirmed by a positive toxin assay and culture of C difficile. Treatment for C difficile colitis is usually medical, with oral vancomycin the preferred agent. Surgery may be needed when there is an acute abdomen with other systemic signs (fever or leukocytosis) or abnormal radiologic studies.
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6/7. The excluded small-bowel segment. A source of complications after small-bowel bypass.

    Two cases of obstruction of the bypassed small intestine after jejunoileal shunt for obesity are presented. These cases illustrate the possible failure of radiologic visualization of the obstructed bowel since no gas traverses this bowel, as well as two of the possible causes-internal herniation and volvulus. A third cause, intussusception of the blind loop into the colon, has been reported. Obstruction of the bypassed bowel demands surgical intervention and could lead to perforation and peritonitis if untreated. Its prevention involves the closure of all mesenteric defects at the original operation. Surgeons should be aware of the possibility of these conditions in any patient who has had a small-bowel bypass operation.
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7/7. Late complication of laparoscopic salpingoophorectomy: retained foreign body presenting as an acute abdomen.

    BACKGROUND: laparoscopy is widely used as a tool in many clinical situations allowing for diagnosis and/or surgical management in a minimally invasive fashion. Most laparoscopic cases are ambulatory and allow patients to recover quickly. Nonetheless, attention to surgical technique is paramount to avoid both short and long term complications. CASE: A 32-year-old woman had a laparoscopy and a reported left salpingoophorectomy for benign disease of the ovary in September, 1994. Shortly thereafter, in January, 1995, she was diagnosed with an intrauterine pregnancy and delivered in October of 1995 by spontaneous vaginal delivery. The pregnancy and delivery were both uncomplicated. The patient presented four weeks postpartum with clinical suspicion of appendicitis. However, at the time of laparotomy, the patient was found to have a retained foreign body from her prior laparoscopy in the right lower quadrant with a pelvic abscess and evidence of prior right salpingoophorectomy. The appendix appeared grossly normal. CONCLUSION: laparoscopy is a safe, effective modality for various surgical and gynecologic conditions. Although laparoscopy is usually done on an outpatient basis, complications can manifest several weeks or months later. This case illustrates and reminds us of the importance of adherence to surgical laparoscopic principles. These include direct visualization when removing equipment and a complete count of surgical instrumentation to confirm the integrity of such at the end of each procedure.
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Last update: April 2009
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