Cases reported "Brain Diseases"

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1/4545. pseudotumor cerebri and leukoencephalopathy in childhood lupus.

    We describe an adolescent with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) associated with diffuse white matter lesions (leukoencephalopathy) on neuroimaging studies. Although the association between SLE and PTC has been reported previously in 21 cases, the findings of leukoencephalopathy is known in only one other patient. ( info)

2/4545. Musical hallucinations and palinacousis.

    So far, little attention has been paid to the similarities between musical hallucinations and palinacousis. Since the authors found a 75-year-old woman suffering from both symptoms, the similarities were investigated. As a result, musical hallucinations have all the four components of palinacousis structurally, although there are some differences in content. Thus, there exist substantial similarities. Moreover, both symptoms are often associated with seizure activity and there have been several case reports where anticonvulsants were successfully used to treat both symptoms. These findings indicate the possibility that there may exist a common pathway generating musical hallucinations and palinacousis. ( info)

3/4545. central nervous system T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in a patient with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PURPOSE: central nervous system (CNS)-T cell lymphoproliferative disorder (T-LPD) developing during the course of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) infection is reported. patients AND methods: CAEBV was diagnosed in a 14-month-old boy with fever, cytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and abnormal high titers of anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies. At 8 years of age, he had a splenectomy because of progressive disease. RESULTS: After 27 months of clinical remission, muscle weakness and paresthesia developed. magnetic resonance imaging of his brain showed spotty T2 prolongation in left parietal, bilateral frontal, and temporal white matter with meningeal enhancement. Brain biopsy revealed the cerebral infiltration of CD3 , CD4 , CD8-, CD45RO , CD56-, and EBV-encoded rna 1 cells. CONCLUSIONS: The CNS involvement of EBV-associated T-LPD is a rare but serious complication in CAEBV without known underlying immunodeficiency. ( info)

4/4545. Anterior pontine hydatid cyst: case report.

    We report a rare case of anterior pontine hydatid cyst. diagnosis was established on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings preoperatively and was confirmed during surgery and by laboratory findings of cyst fluid, and section of cyst wall. A classical suboccipital craniectomy was performed, followed by an approach through the floor of the fourth ventricle. After a failed attempt at the Dowling technique, we punctured the cyst, aspirated the contents, then extirpated the cyst membrane. The patient survived suffering only minor morbidity. The surgical technique and pontine myelotomy are discussed. ( info)

5/4545. Neuro-ophthalmic, radiographic, and pathologic manifestations of adult-onset alexander disease.

    A 61-year-old woman had a 3-year history of imbalance. eye movement studies revealed square-wave jerks, gaze paretic nystagmus, rebound nystagmus, impaired smooth pursuit, impaired optokinetic nystagmus, and abnormal fixation suppression of vestibular nystagmus. A brain magnetic resonance imaging study showed extensive areas of increased signal from the middle cerebellar peduncles and dentate nuclei, which enhanced with gadolinium. Histopathological analysis of a needle biopsy specimen of the left cerebellar peduncle revealed diffuse gliosis in the presence of symmetrically distributed areas of demyelination. There were associated Rosenthal fibers. Clinicopathologic correlation supported a diagnosis of alexander disease. An adult patient with a history of progressive imbalance, ocular motility abnormalities consistent with cerebellar and/or brainstem dysfunction, and diffuse, symmetric hyperintense magnetic resonance imaging signals in brainstem and cerebellar white matter should suggest a diagnosis of adult-onset alexander disease. ( info)

6/4545. Encephalopathy associated with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis following rotavirus infection.

    A 2-year-old Japanese boy with a haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) associated encephalopathy which developed after rotavirus infection is described. The neurological symptoms consisted of coma, seizures and spastic quadriplegia. On therapy with steroids, etoposide and cyclosporin A, the patient recovered without any neurological deficits. The interferon-gamma levels in serum and CSF were elevated at onset of the disease but had returned to normal at the time of clinical remission. Brain MRI revealed diffuse white matter abnormalities and parenchymal volume loss. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed elevated lactate in the abnormal lesions observed on MRI, indicating that macrophages not exhibiting aerobic metabolism had infiltrated the CNS. At the time of clinical remission, the white matter abnormalities and brain lactate had disappeared. These findings suggested that the neurological symptoms resulted from the overproduction of cytokines by activated T-cells and macrophages. The pathophysiology of a HLH associated encephalopathy was considered to be a local immune response within the CNS, because interferon-gamma can induce the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and II antigens on glial cells in the CNS. CONCLUSION: Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated encephalopathy should be considered early in the differential diagnosis of cases with acute onset neuropathy. ( info)

7/4545. Two similar cases of encephalopathy, possibly a reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome: serial findings of magnetic resonance imaging, SPECT and angiography.

    Two young women who had encephalopathy that resembled reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome are presented. The brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of these patients exhibited similar T2-high signal lesions, mostly in the white matter of the posterior hemispheres. Xe-SPECT during the patients' symptomatic period showed hypoperfusion in the corresponding areas, and angiography demonstrated irregular narrowing of the posterior cerebral artery. Clinical manifestations subsided soon after treatment, and the abnormal radiological findings also were almost completely resolved. Thus, we concluded that transient hypoperfusion followed by ischemia and cytotoxic edema might have had a pivotal role in these cases. ( info)

8/4545. Intracranial Castleman's disease of solitary form. Case report.

    This 62-year-old woman presented with clumsiness in her right hand. magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a small lesion mimicking a meningioma, which had arisen from the tentorium and contained notable edema. Full recovery was achieved by total removal of the lesion, which was diagnosed as a lymphoid mass resembling giant lymph node hyperplasia on histological examination. The lack of notable findings on whole-body and laboratory studies was compatible with a rare case of intracranial Castleman's disease of solitary form. The authors document clinical, neuroradiological, and pathological features of this rare disease. ( info)

9/4545. Integration of preoperative and intraoperative functional brain mapping in a frameless stereotactic environment for lesions near eloquent cortex. Technical note.

    The authors present a method of incorporating preoperative noninvasive functional brain mapping data into the frameless stereotactic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging dataset used for image-guided resection of brain lesions located near eloquent cortex. They report the use of functional (f)MR imaging and magnetic source (MS) imaging for preoperative mapping of eloquent cortex in difficult cases of brain tumor resection such as those in which there are large expansive masses or in which reoperations are required and the anatomy is distorted from prior treatments. To correlate methods of preoperative and intraoperative mapping localization directly, the authors have developed techniques of importing preoperative MS and fMR imaging data into an image-guided frameless stereotactic computer workstation. The data appear as a seamless overlay on the same preoperative volumetric MR imaging dataset used for stereotactic guidance during the operation. Intraoperatively identified functional locations mapped by cortical stimulation are recorded as digitally registered points. This approach should prove useful in assessing the accuracy and reliability of various preoperative functional brain mapping techniques. ( info)

10/4545. Osmotic demyelination syndrome with two-phase movement disorders: case report.

    Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is characterized by regions of demyelination throughout the brain, which are most prominent in the pons. This demyelinating disease is associated with electrolyte disturbances and typically occurs in patients who are alcoholic or malnourished. movement disorders are not frequently recognized in patients with ODS. This report describes a 22-year-old woman with ODS after correction of profound hyponatremia. The main neurologic symptom was two-phase movement disorder. First, she had acute onset dystonia, then the movement disorder transformed to generalized rigidity and tremors in the delayed second phase. magnetic resonance imaging in the first phase revealed demyelinating lesions in the central pons, bilateral thalami and basal ganglia. In the second phase, the previous myelinolysis had been partially resolved. The clinical course of the two-phase movement disorder did not correlate with the resolving feature of neuroradiologic findings. During the second-phase movement disorder, the patient had a good response to propranolol and trihexyphenidyl. ( info)
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Last update: September 2014