Cases reported "Abnormalities"

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1/482. Aphallia as part of urorectal septum malformation sequence in an infant of a diabetic mother.

    A male patient with aphallia, anal stenosis, tetralogy of fallot, multiple vertebral anomalies including sacral agenesis and central nervous system (CNS) malformations was born after a pregnancy complicated by poorly controlled maternal diabetes. Aphallia is an extremely rare abnormality and can be part of the urorectal septum malformation sequence (URSMS). While aphallia has not been reported in infants of diabetic mothers, urogenital malformations are known to occur with increased frequency. Two female products of pregnancies complicated by diabetes presented with multiple malformations including anal atresia and recto-vaginal fistula consistent with the diagnosis of URSMS. The three patients share CNS, cardiac, and vertebral anomalies, abnormalities secondary to abnormal blastogenesis and characteristic of diabetic embryopathy. URSMS is also caused by abnormal blastogenesis. Therefore, this particular malformation should be viewed in the context of the multiple blastogenetic abnormalities in the cases reported here. The overlap of findings of URSMS in our cases with other abnormalities of blastogenesis, such as VATER association or sacral agenesis is not surprising, as these associations are known to lack clear diagnostic boundaries. (+info)

2/482. Tracheal agenesis revisited: analysis of associated anomalies.

    We describe five new cases of tracheal agenesis and report on epidemiological and numerical analyses of nearly 100 such cases with multiple congenital anomalies. Malformations seen with tracheal agenesis form patterns which overlap with, but are distinct from, VACTERL association. They have a high frequency of other lower respiratory tract anomalies; e.g., laryngeal atresia and lung lobation defects, and complex heart anomalies, but fewer anal and vertebral malformations. Cluster analysis of the malformations in 86 patients identified four consistent groups. Anomalies in the first group were primarily restricted to the trachea, larynx, and cardiovascular system. In the second group, the patients had more severe cardiac defects, and lung lobation anomalies, while in the third they had a caudal component in addition to thoracic abnormalities, with anal and renal anomalies being common. Each of these groups showed a male excess and may represent increasingly severe perturbations in development fields encompassing the developing respiratory tract. Although the nature of the causative insult is unknown and probably heterogenous, one underlying pathogenetic mechanism may be abnormal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. patients in the fourth group also had multisystem involvement with a high incidence of aberrant vessels, complex cardiac malformations, lung lobation defects, and anomalies of other foregut derivatives. The sex ratio in this group was normal and such cases could represent a disturbance in the primary development field during blastogenesis with secondary vascular disruptions. Complete tracheal agenesis is a lethal anomaly. However, segmental forms may be correctable and, in this group of infants, the nature of associated anomalies may well determine long-term prognosis. (+info)

3/482. 'Identical' twins with discordant karyotypes.

    A chromosomal abnormality in one of the fetuses of a monozygotic twin pregnancy is a rare phenomenon. In the prenatal unit of our cytogenetics laboratory we have recently come across two such heterokaryotypic twin pregnancies. In both cases ultrasound abnormalities were detected in one fetus of each twin pair. Chromosomal analysis showed that one twin pregnancy was discordant for trisomy 21 and the other for 45,X. Ultrasonographic examination suggested a monochorionic twin pregnancy in each case and dna studies confirmed that both sets of twins were monozygotic. Both pregnancies were terminated. Biopsies taken from different sites of the placentas showed chromosomal mosaicism in both cases. There was no clear correlation between the karyotype found close to the site of the umbilical cord insertion in the placenta and the karyotype of the fetus. Sampling of amniotic fluid from both sacs is recommended in diamniotic twin pregnancies if one (or both) of the fetuses has ultrasound abnormalities, even if the twins are apparently monochorionic. (+info)

4/482. An autosomal dominant or X-linked osteodysplastic disorder with severe cervical involvement.

    A disorder affecting bone and cartilage growth is described in a mother and her 3-year-old son. A dysplastic process involving the vertebral bodies, most pronounced in the cervical region and leading to cervical dislocation in the first of these two patients, is the most significant complication of this disorder. This entity appears unrelated to other previously described skeletal dysplasias with cervical kyphosis as a major manifestation. This disorder is most likely autosomal dominant. (+info)

5/482. Severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery presenting as loss of consciousness due to the presence of a primitive hypoglossal artery: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: Symptoms of ischemic attacks in the internal carotid system usually involve focal cerebral dysfunction, i.e., hemiparesis or aphasia. However, an ischemic attack in the vertebrobasilar artery system usually presents with combined symptoms. The variety of manifestations included in the vertebrobasilar profile makes the potential pattern of symptoms considerably more variable and complex than that in the carotid system. Manifestations can include syncope and also vertigo. METHOD AND RESULTS: A 42-year-old woman experienced frequent attacks of faintness with vertigo. angiography demonstrated severe stenosis of the left internal carotid artery with a persistent primitive hypoglossal artery just distal to the stenosis. The right internal carotid artery was normal and cross circulation through the anterior communicating artery was not well developed. Both vertebral arteries were hypoplastic. The patient underwent carotid endarterectomy and, thereafter the episodes of syncope completely disappeared. CONCLUSION: It was supposed that global ischemia including the brain stem occurred because of stenosis of the left internal carotid artery attributable to the presence of a primitive hypoglossal artery. (+info)

6/482. Epidermal naevus syndrome.

    A case of the epidermal naevus syndrome is presented. Huge enlargement of both lower limbs was the presenting symptoms together with an extensive veavus unius lateris on the trunk. (+info)

7/482. Segmental bronchial atresia--a case report and a literature review.

    Bronchial atresia is a short and juxtahilar bronchus interruption. This uncommon malformation leads to an obstructive and systematized emphysema, often associated with mucoid impaction. The authors report the case of a 5-year-old boy and review the literature in order to recall the radiologic features of this affection, which are characterized by an obstructive segmental or lobar emphysema often located in the upper lobe. The modern imaging means are not necessary for diagnosis. bronchography confirms the atresia. Neonatal bronchial atresia appears as an opaque segment or lobe with retention of the alveolar liquid. (+info)

8/482. Terminal deletion, del(1)(p36.3), detected through screening for terminal deletions in patients with unclassified malformation syndromes.

    We report on a 4 year-old girl with a 1p36.3-pter deletion. Clinical findings included minor anomalies of face and distal limbs, patent ductus arteriosus, the Ebstein heart anomaly, and brain atrophy with seizures. Conventional GTG-banded chromosome analysis revealed a normal (46,XX) result. Subsequent analysis by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using distal probes demonstrated a deletion of 1p36.6-pter. Molecular investigations with microsatellite markers showed hemizygosity at three loci at 1p36.3 with loss of the paternal allele. The deletion of 1p36.3 is difficult to identify by banding alone; indeed, our patient represents the third reported case with a del(1)(p36.3) that was detected only after more detailed analysis. In all three cases the deletion was detected through screening of patients with multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndromes suggestive of autosomal chromosome aberrations for subtelomeric submicroscopic deletions by means of FISH or microsatellite marker analysis. On the basis of these observations we highly recommend that FISH with a subtelomeric 1p probe be routinely performed in patients with similar facial phenotype, severe mental retardation and seizures, and a heart malformation, particularly the Ebstein anomaly. (+info)

9/482. Coarctation of the aorta with right aortic arch: surgical technique and new classification.

    BACKGROUND: The combination of right aortic arch and coarctation of the aorta has seldom been reported. This rare abnormality occurs as an isolated lesion or in association with other congenital defects, such as mixed gonadal dysgenesis and Turner's syndrome. methods: The medical records of 2 patients who underwent operation for right aortic arch and aortic coarctation in our institution were reviewed together with case reports in the literature. Various surgical options have been reported: synthetic grafts, subclavian flap, and end-to-end anastomosis. End-to-end anastomosis is our method of choice for coarctation of the aorta and for right aortic arch with coarctation, even though an excessive amount of dissection is needed. RESULTS: Both patients from our institution are doing well, with no sign of recoarctation in either patient. Our experience and recent advances in the understanding of the anatomy of this lesion led us to develop an alternative simplified classification for right aortic arch, which is presented here. CONCLUSIONS: Right aortic arch and coarctation of the aorta is a rare morphologic combination. On the basis of our experience with repair of coarctation of the aorta and our review of the literature, we think that end-to-end anastomosis is the operative technique of choice with the best long-term results. Our simplified classification is easy to understand when dealing with right aortic arch. (+info)

10/482. Contribution of clinical teratologists and geneticists to the evaluation of the etiology of congenital malformations alleged to be caused by environmental agents: ionizing radiation, electromagnetic fields, microwaves, radionuclides, and ultrasound.

    Analysis of these six clinical problems demonstrates the value of a complete clinical evaluation of a child with congenital malformations by an experienced and well-trained physician who is familiar with the fields of developmental biology, teratology , epidemiology, and genetics. Too often, the entire emphasis is placed on epidemiological data that may be meager or insufficient for a rational conclusion when clinical findings that are readily available can provide definitive answers with regard to the etiology of a child's malformations or the merits of an environmental etiology. (+info)
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Last update: April 2009